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The Titanic is one of the most famous ships. But his story is extremely tragic. At the time of commissioning, it was the largest vessel in the world, with a displacement of 52 thousand tons. But on its very first voyage, on the night of April 14-15, 1912, the Titanic crashed. The reason was the collision with an iceberg in the northern waters of the Atlantic.
The ship received large holes and quickly sank, breaking in half. In the course of the disaster, 1496 people died, only 712 passengers managed to escape. They were picked up by the nearby steamer Carpathia. The wreckage of the ship sank to a depth of 3,750 meters. They were discovered only in 1985. Subsequent expeditions have lifted many items from the famous ship since the day.
A lot has been written about the tragedy of "Titanic", and several films have been shot. The tragedy was, albeit not the largest on the sea, but the most impressive.
It seemed that man, with the help of a modern ship, conquered the oceans, and a new era was dawning. We will try to debunk them.
The Titanic was considered an unsinkable ship. This myth has already appeared in our time. In Cameron's film, the heroine's mother, admiring the ship in Southampton, calls it unsinkable. Historians say that the appearance of such a myth is quite justified, because it allows an excellent story of the wreck of an unsinkable ship to be born. What happened that no one believed in. It seems logical that God decided to punish the presumptuous person. The White Star Line company itself, which owned the ship, never made such statements publicly. There are three trade publications in which the ship was called "practically unsinkable" even before its death, but there is no evidence that this was the opinion of public opinion at that time. In the company's advertising products, special emphasis was placed on the safety of the Titanic and Olympic, it was assured that they were created in such a way as to reduce the risks of flooding. However, other liners of the same class had similar qualities. The very first claims that the Titanic was considered unsinkable appeared in The New York Times on April 16, 1912. This happened the day after the tragedy. Experts said that they previously considered the ship unsinkable, this comment was immediately replicated, allowing this myth to be born.
The Titanic was the most famous ship of its time. At the time of the ship's disaster, the cinema had existed for 15 years. There was a lot of talk about the tragedy in the news clips shown in cinemas, but only a few frames of the ship itself remained. The fact is that until the moment of the crash, the Titanic itself was not of particular interest to journalists. Glory went to the complete analogue of this vessel, the Olympic. It was created earlier and made the first flight from Southampton to New York in 1911. Then the liner was commanded by the same captain who later on the Titanic. And the route was exactly the same. The ship did not differ in the number of lifeboats. And to show what the Titanic was like, the news simply showed the views of its twin brother, the Olympic.
The orchestra on the Titanic played music even as the ship sank. In many films about the Titanic, an interesting situation is shown - the orchestra continues to play even at the moment when everyone around is panicking and looking for a way to escape. Such a scene is intended to show that the musicians worked to cheer up the passengers. The last piece performed, allegedly, was the church hymn "Closer, Lord, to you." But the musicians themselves will not be able to confirm this myth - they all died. But thanks to this myth, they made heroes. Eyewitnesses of the disaster did hear that music was playing on the deck, but there are doubts about the last composition performed. Some have heard ragtime, while others have heard regular popular music. And the passenger who told about the last melody of the orchestra ended up in the lifeboat long before the ship's sinking. So he just couldn't know the truth. But the church hymn turned out to be such an emotional option that it works great as a basis for a romantic story. When James Cameron consulted with experts on the set of his film, he drew attention to the scene with the musicians in the film "Unforgettable Night" ("The Death of the Titanic") back in 1958. The director liked her so much that he simply copied the scene into his film, making it part of the story.
Captain Smith was a hero. How the Titanic captain spent his last hours is practically unknown. Today he is considered a hero who refused to leave his ship in distress. But they say that the captain did not heed the warning about icebergs on the way of the ship, did not reduce the speed of the ship. He did not give the order for the evacuation in time, which is why many passengers did not understand the true picture of what was happening. And Smith did not create a rescue plan, without being engaged in the launch of lifeboats. No one knew better than he how many people were on board and how many seats were in the boats. But Smith admitted that the boats did not leave completely filled. So there was nothing heroic in his behavior. The first boat sailed off in calm, windless weather with 27 passengers and a capacity of 65. Many boats left half empty, never returning to rescue the rest. But Smith even erected monuments. It is the captain who is responsible for all the poor-quality work of the rescue services on the ship. On the fateful night, Smith's presence on the ship was not felt at all. It is likely that he received psychological trauma, realizing that few would be saved. The confusion of Smith's thinking at a critical moment is manifested at least in the fact that he confused the design of the Titanic and the Olympic. Capital ordered to launch boats from the deck that was located on the twin ship.
Captain Smith saved the child. There is a myth about how Captain Smith, together with the child, swam to the boat and handed the baby over. Then he wished the survivors good luck and went back to the sinking ship. But this is a beautiful myth. The captain was last seen on the bridge. Nobody knows what happened to him further.
At the time of the disaster, the captain was drunk. On the eve of the disaster, the captain did take part in a dinner in his honor hosted by the Widener family. But Smith never drank at sea, and this was no exception. The participants of that dinner themselves confirm that the captain did not touch alcohol. He smoked a couple of cigars and left the restaurant at 10 pm.
Captain Smith had to slow down in dangerous waters. He should have done this if there was an obvious threat to the ship, in the form of large and dangerous chunks of ice in the water. Before this accident, the captains of passenger ships did not slow down in clear weather until they noticed ice floes nearby. This was confirmed by other managers of passenger transatlantic liners during the investigation. Captain Smith, after receiving a warning of icebergs, changed course and went south to reduce the risk. His solution looks professional.
Captain Smith ignored reports of icebergs. The captain's reaction to the warnings was extremely professional. He changed course and ordered the lookouts to look for ice. Smith chose the safer Southern route. But information came in that there were icebergs here as well. Then he chose an even longer path, even further south. Icebergs have never been seen there before. But in this situation, the captain ordered to look for ice ahead of the course.
The team behaved unprofessionally. This myth proves the fact of incomplete filling of the first boats. In fact, the passengers felt they were on the world's most reliable ship. They believed that teachings were taking place. Who wants to trade a huge, warm and light liner for a cramped wooden boat? The crew did not know how much time was allotted to the ship, so they sent whoever they could. When the danger became apparent, the boats had to be sent overcrowded. And in a critical situation, no one was immune from mistakes. Such liners have never sank before. The sailors, fearing a huge crater, tried not to return in boats. And they can be understood given the crowd of people in the water and jumping from above, which could turn the boat over.
The president of the company that built the Titanic cowardly fled from him. If there are heroes, then there must be scoundrels. This is how Bruce Ismay is presented. It is believed that he left the sinking ship in a hurry in the first boat, while women and children were drowning around. There are stories of exactly how Ismay got the captain to go at top speed. But in 1912 an investigation was carried out, from Great Britain it was led by Lord Mersey. He concluded that Ismay, on the contrary, helped many passengers to take seats in the boat. He himself went in the last boat. But the topic of betrayal turned out to be too cinematic to ignore. And the origins of this story originate from the major media mogul William Randolph Hirst. He had a fight with Ismay long before the sinking of the Titanic. The industrialist did not want to speak to the press about the wreck of one of his ships. And Hirst's journalists have declared a real war against him. When the list of surviving passengers was published, the name of the company owner was highlighted. The newspapers cited memories of people who saw Ismay in the first rescue service, other witnesses said that he demanded that the team take him to a safe place.
In 1943, its own version of "Titanic" appeared in Nazi Germany. This film was personally overseen by the Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels. Ismeya was shown as an authoritarian Jewish businessman, he forced the brave Teutonic capital to disperse the liner in the danger zone, disregarding the warnings. And in the 1958 film Unforgettable Night, Ismay is also portrayed as a villain. While filming Cameron's film, the director was told the truth, but he decided not to redo the script so as not to deceive the expectations of the audience. Once again, Ismay is shown as a villain who propelled the ship forward, forcing him to arrive early in New York for promotional purposes. In any case, the businessman could not bear the bullying and left White Star in 1913. A book was even written about the tragedy of Ismay, in which he is shown as a simple man who was in a difficult situation. The businessman was emotionally unprepared for what had happened. At the time of the disaster, he was confused, which caused others to hesitate. Ismay was not a "super-captain" and did not give orders, he himself did not even suspect that he had any special status on the ship and did not think to use it.
The third class passengers were not allowed upstairs until the last moment. Cameron's film shows how passengers with the cheapest tickets were not allowed out so that they would not interfere with wealthier people from diving into boats. However, there is no documentary evidence of this emotional myth. Third-class passengers were indeed separated from the rest by fences. But this was not required for the sake of a special evacuation procedure in a shipwreck, but solely for the sake of American immigration laws. This measure prevented the spread of viral infections. Before arriving in Manhattan, the Titanic had to stop at Ellis Island, where all ordinary passengers would undergo a medical examination and paperwork. And those poor people who wanted to start a new life in America rode in third grade. They were mainly Italians, Dutch, Russians, Armenians, Chinese and Scandinavians. Passengers of each class had their own access to separate decks to the boats located there. But there were no such boats on the deck of the third class. So the poor passengers had to wade through the maze of stairs and corridors to go upstairs. So the people on the first two decks initially had an advantage. Investigations showed that stewards first blocked some aisles while awaiting instructions from their superiors. But after the launch of most of the boats, the passages were open. At the same time, the passengers of the third class themselves were reluctant to leave the Titanic, not wanting to part with their luggage. After all, it was, in fact, all their property. There was no intentional restriction, and most likely there was some oversight caused by blind obedience to instructions. But the result was tragic. During the investigation, none of the passengers of the third class gave evidence, these people were represented by the lawyer Harbinson. He announced the restriction of the movement of his charges, giving rise to this myth. Unfortunately, the passenger class played a role. Of the owners of the cheapest seats, only a third survived.
The Titanic was transporting a treasure of gold. Often they talk about the treasures of the Titanic, but in this case we are still not talking about gold. There were many wealthy passengers, millionaires and collectors on board. The cost of antiques, diamonds, expensive paintings and gold is about $ 250 million at current prices. They remained in the safes and cabins of the ship. Since then, the Titanic has been visited by automated expeditions that have lifted parts of the objects. But the robots did not manage to get into the safes - too thick layer of silt prevented them from opening. In addition, there are rumors that before the dive, taking advantage of the panic, some passengers and crew members openly engaged in robbery. So on board the treasure, in the form of numerous bars of gold, no, it is worth talking about valuable things. But lifting them from such a depth is either unprofitable, or technically impossible. It remains for us to look at the treasures of the Titanic with the help of photographs and video filming.
The Titanic was cursed because of the Egyptian mummy on board. Some eyewitnesses recall that a few minutes before the disaster, the captain was seen next to a box carrying the mummy of an ancient Egyptian soothsayer. And Smith immediately after that started acting very strange. The mummy was carried to America by Lord Cantherville, due to its special value, this cargo was not in the hold, but on the captain's bridge. In favor of the version about the clouding of the captain's consciousness at a critical moment, rumors about the curse of the pharaohs and a series of mysterious deaths of those who dared to invade the ancient burial places speak. In fact, during the voyage, the famous spiritualist William Steed told the story of the priestess of Amon-Ra, who was on display at the British Museum in London, at a dinner party. The passengers were impressed by this story. And later journalists from the yellow press inflated it, the curses and the death of the ship were too well combined. This is how the myth of the finding of the mummy on the Titanic appeared. In fact, it is kept in the same place in London.
The Titanic drowned because of the cursed diamond. According to legend, along with the mummy on the ship was a rare blue Hope diamond. The history of this stone dates back to the 17th century, when it came from India to the yard of a French ship. Under Louis XV, the diamond was on the royal pendant of the Order of the Golden Fleece, then it passed to Marie Antoinette. In 1792 the stone was stolen, and in 1839 it was acquired by Henry Hope. The diamond is considered cursed, since with its appearance in Europe, the plague began. The former owner, Marie Antoinette, ended her life on the scaffold, her friend, who owned the stone after the death of the queen, was also killed. Hope's son was poisoned and his grandson went bankrupt. Supporters of this legend say that the diamond was on board the ship, it was transported by a certain married couple.And the stone killed them, as well as other passengers. But this myth is easy to debunk - the diamond has been kept in the Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian University since 1958. At that time, nothing had been lifted from the Titanic, so the "damned" stone was simply not there.
There is no point in lifting valuables from the Titanic. Since the discovery of the Titanic, more than six expeditions have been sent to it. At first, the researchers did not have the right to lift valuable items, but then the French and Americans received legal permission to do so. In total, RMS Titanic spent more than $ 11 million on research, more than six thousand items were lifted from the ship. Their total cost was over 110 million. True, the collection of diamonds, the Egyptian mummy and the valuable binding of Omar Khayyam's manuscript have never been found. In any case, the expeditions paid off financially, and we got the opportunity to admire objects from the legendary ship a century after its death.
The surviving passengers from the Titanic were recently found on an iceberg. In September 1990, interesting news came out. A trawler in the North Atlantic lifted a young girl off an iceberg. She introduced herself as Vinnie Coates, passenger on the Titanic. Icebergs are known to drift southward thanks to the Labrador Current. However, the block of ice that collided with the Titanic was supposed to melt in 3-5 days. It is doubtful that such an iceberg has floated for more than a hundred years. Supporters of the myth talk about temporary failures, but this is already out of the realm of fantasy and it will not be possible to prove it. And Vinnie Coates herself is listed among the surviving passengers. Her further life was not a mystery - the woman lived all her life in New Jersey, preferring not to remember that tragedy. She died in 1960, there is evidence of her death.
During the construction of the Titanic, a worker was walled up in it. They say that the ship was built so quickly that one or even several workers were immured alive between the hulls. And they periodically tapped from there, giving signals. But nothing confirms this story, it remains a legend without factual material. Knocks could be due to checks. Experts inside the case, checking the reliability of the rivets, beat them. Workers standing outside heard these sounds, using them to create horror stories for young and gullible students.
The Titanic contained the code of the Antichrist. It is said that the ship's serial number was 390904. There is a legend that some of the ship's builders put a secret anti-church message into this number. The numbers written on paper, reflected in the mirror, will add up to the words "No Pope" or "No Pope." So Irish Protestants could protest against the Catholic Church. God decided to punish such a ship by sinking it on the very first voyage. But there is no evidence that this number is linked to the ship. Its tail number was 401, and the registration number of the Board of Trade was 131428. There is no documentary confirmation of the mysterious number.
Shipowners instead of "Titanic" started "Olympic", setting up the wreck. This myth is another conspiracy theory. It's no secret that White Star Line had an unenviable financial position. Back in 1911, the Olympic collided with an English cruiser. However, the damage received was so insignificant that they did not pull for compensation. It was required that the ship had a major accident. The owners decided to subject him to a collision with an iceberg, believing that the reliable ship would not sink. Stern sheets with the name of the vessel, interior items were replaced so that no one would see the change. However, this theory is easily debunked. Many passengers of the Titanic have already sailed on the Olympic before and could understand where they are. The ships had significant differences, and the rework would take a long time, leaving many witnesses. Eyewitnesses recall how much the new ship smelled of paint. And the downtime of the damaged vessel would be simply unprofitable for the owners. And when the parts were lifted from the steamer, they found building number 401, which belonged to the Titanic. The Olympic had the number 400. So there is no doubt what kind of ship was involved in the accident.
Even before the collision with the iceberg, a fire broke out on the Titanic. Some experts advocate this theory. In their opinion, the fire broke out on April 2 in the sixth hold. It was not possible to extinguish it. Then the captain of the ship decided to sail as quickly as possible to New York, there without panic to drop the passengers off and then start putting out the fire. This is what can explain the high speed of the ship at night, when there was a great risk of colliding with an iceberg. The captain simply understood that the ship could explode without reaching America. Under these conditions, warnings about ice floes in these waters no longer mattered. But the fire could deform the partition, which let water from the damaged 6th compartment. The stokers spoke about this in their testimony. However, in this case, we can talk about a conspiracy theory, little confirmed. In any case, the fire was not the cause of the ship's wreck.
The Titanic sank not from an iceberg, but from a torpedo from a German submarine. And in this case, the purpose of such an attack could be to obtain insurance. If a torpedo damaged the hull, it would be noticed by both the crew and passengers. In addition, at that moment, the submarines did not yet have such autonomy to go out into the ocean. Yes, and the power of the torpedoes was not great, they would obviously need several. A series of explosions would be clearly different from the sounds of a collision with a sedentary obstacle. And getting into a high-speed target at night for submariners is akin to aerobatics, but in 1912 they simply did not have such experience.
The Titanic did not slow down as it was chasing the time record. In 1907, the Mauritania received the prestigious Blue Ribbon Atlantic prize for the fastest crossing of the ocean. The award was established by the Kunard Line company, the main competitor of the White Star Line, and it also owned the record-breaking ship. It is believed that Bruce Ismay urged the captain to "rush at full steam" in order to arrive a day ahead of schedule and receive an honorary prize. This explains the high speed of the vessel in a dangerous area. However, the myth is easy to refute - "Titanic" physically could not reach the speed of 26 knots, which showed "Mauritania". By the way, the record lasted until 1929.
The captain could open the watertight partitions and flood the Titanic more evenly. Until now, there is a lot of debate about whether it was possible to save the Titanic or how it was really possible to extend its life. The captain is accused of not opening the partitions. As a result, the ship sank under the water. Was it really possible to create a respite and save the lives of hundreds of people? With the help of the naval designer, the researchers made an accurate model of the Titanic on a scale of 1 to 100. The size of the ship, its displacement was proportional to the reduced copy. And the waterproof partitions were made transparent. The volume of water injected through the hole was proportionally reduced. First, a real scenario that happened in 1912 was recreated. Water entered the bow holds, breaking the flood protection systems. The bow, as with the real ship, was flooded, dragging the ship to the bottom in two and a half hours. The model went head-down, like the real Titanic. If the captain opened the sealed partitions, then the water would rush into the stern. Consequently, the bow would not go down, and the ship, it would seem, had to sink evenly. This experiment was done with a model. Water flooded the last steam boiler, and the Titanic was completely de-energized. The people on the lower deck would be in pitch darkness. Chaos would have started an hour and a half earlier than in reality. Due to the movement of tons of water, the ship would begin to heel aboard, losing stability. The boats could not have been launched at that angle. As a result, the model sank half an hour earlier than in the first case. So it became clear that the captain made the right decision, which allowed dozens of people to escape.
The sinking of the Titanic is the largest disaster at sea. In the list of the largest sea disasters, the sinking of the Titanic is not even in the top ten. In 1912, 1496 people died. The record is the sinking of the German ship "Goya" in 1945, it was sunk by a Soviet submarine. Then about 7 thousand people died. And in peacetime, the tragedy of the passenger ferry "Donja Paz" in 1987 became even more tragic than the Titanic. 4375 passengers became victims.
The Titanic killed mostly third-class passengers. Both quantitatively and in percentage terms, the greatest victims were not even the passengers, but the team members. Some helped the evacuation to the last, while others maintained steam pressure to operate pumps and generate electricity. Of the 1,496 victims, almost half, 686 people - the Titanic team. The third class passengers drowned 527 people. Even in the first and second grade, a lot died in percentage terms - 36% and 57%, respectively.
All Titanic engineers died while in the engine room. The engineers were there until they were relieved of their duties by order of the management. Some still remained at their post. Climbing to the upper deck, the engineers saw that the boats were almost all lowered, while the rest were loaded with third-class passengers, mainly wives and children. The specialists were seen on the boat deck by witnesses. But none of the 36 engineers managed to escape.
All the victims of the Titanic were drowned. Many of the passengers, unable to take a seat in the boat, jumped into the water. After the sinking of the Titanic, they managed to stay on the surface, but it was very cold. Hundreds of people fell victim to hypothermia.
The tragedy happened due to the error of the helmsman, who turned the steering wheel in the opposite direction. In the 1990s, a book was published by Louise Patten, who was allegedly the granddaughter of the second mate, Charles Lightoller. She says the iceberg was spotted by a lookout. The officer gave the command "Right on board!" On steam ships, the command "to the steering wheel" is carried out in the direction that is announced. But in the North Atlantic at that time, the teams were referring to the tiller, it had to be turned in the other direction. This is exactly what the senior officers who began serving on sailboats had in mind. Helmsman Hitchens, panicked, turned the steering wheel to the right, and the Titanic hit the iceberg. But if the ship really hit the boulder, there would be a big hole, and not a part of the hull. And the passengers practically did not feel the collision. Lookouts also claimed that the liner turned two points to the left. So this story is just a pretext for the release of a sensational book.
The ship could maneuver to avoid a collision. The iceberg was discovered 37 seconds before the collision, at which point the Titanic's speed was 21 knots. It was no longer possible to avoid a fatal meeting.
The ship had to maneuver to avoid collision. The ship's designer, Edward Wilding, is convinced that if the Titanic hit an iceberg with its nose, it would remain afloat. A terrible blow would have demolished the first 30 meters of the ship, all who were there would have died. The wrinkling nose would serve as a shock absorber, the impact would be felt by everyone on the Titanic. Something similar happened with Arizona. But the officers cannot be blamed for the wrong maneuver, no one could know what would happen next. And a head-on collision might not be as ideal as the designer calculated. Nobody knows what the underwater part of the iceberg was. After all, its shape is by no means correct. If the upper part of the ship were damaged by two compartments, then the underwater ice could carry much more.
The disaster happened because there were no binoculars on the Titanic. It is believed that with the help of such optical devices, lookouts could notice the iceberg earlier. In fact, binoculars are needed for a more detailed examination of what is already visible with the naked eye. Iceberg with their help would be more difficult to detect due to the limited viewing angle. People cannot stand all night with binoculars in their hands and turn their heads! Even in those days, the use of binoculars by lookouts was not supposed, they were at the naval officers, who identified the observed object.
At the sight of the iceberg, the first mate gave the command "Full back". This myth claims that the order was executed, which impaired the ship's maneuverability. It is more likely that William Murdock gave the order "Stop the car." This is evidenced by the testimony of the senior stoker. In any case, the order was given late, and its implementation had no impact on the maneuverability of the Titanic. And the execution of the command "Full Reverse" after "Full Ahead" would lead to a strong tremor of the ship, which would wake everyone up.
The Titanic's rudder was small for a ship of this size. In Cameron's film, this is one of the reasons for the slow turn of the ship. In fact, he did not have to complain about maneuverability. This is proved by the fact that immediately after the collision, while the iceberg floated along the hull, the stern was able to turn in a completely different direction. This avoided another blow to the body. And the steering wheel on the ship was exactly the same as on the Olympic. The captain of this ship during the First World War considered it the most maneuverable of all that he controlled. Thanks to this, "Olympic" managed to become the only passenger ship that sank a submarine in that war.
The Titanic collided with a "dark" iceberg. The commission investigating the disaster suggested that the iceberg could be "black" due to its recent coup. This did not allow him to see him at night. The lookout stated that a dark mass suddenly appeared from the haze, the white top of which was only visible up close. But near the iceberg it appeared white, the helmsman announced this. During the day, it would really look light. But on a moonless night, there was nothing to reflect from the surface, so the icebergs looked dark. In fact, they were quite common.
The Titanic died due to human factors. Researchers are trying to find some reason for the disaster, blaming either the designers or the captain for this. In fact, many facts have developed in a fatal way. There was an extremely cold winter that year, which caused icebergs to climb beyond the southern shipping routes. It was completely calm on a moonless night, which prevented the discovery of ice. In addition, due to optical illusions, the iceberg managed to get close to the ship. And as a result of the collision, exactly one compartment was damaged more than the designers had planned with a margin. Alone, all these factors are not fatal, but put together, the Titanic signed a death sentence.
The Titanic at the bottom is well preserved. Researchers found the sunken ship and studied it carefully. Over the course of a hundred years, his condition deteriorated greatly. There is no deck anymore. It formed together with B and C. Consequently, the rest are about to collapse to the very boiler houses. Many of the premises cannot be found or have been badly damaged. Thus, the personal promenade deck for the richest passengers disappeared under the rubble of Deck A. In the area of the Main Staircase, all decks should have been badly damaged, the Reception Hall and the Dining Salon in their former form are no longer there.
There were not enough boats on the Titanic. In fact, you just need to remember the norms of that time. The inspectors had no complaints about the ship in terms of its safety. The Ministry of Commerce, which gave permission to sail, required 16 boats from a ship of this class, there were 20. And the laws were not outdated - then it seemed that lifeboats were not needed on perfect liners at all. There was not a sufficient number of boats not only on the Titanic, but also on the Olympic, Lusitania, Mauritania, German and American similar ships. And all this was in accordance with the norms.
If the bulkheads were higher, the Titanic could keep afloat. This statement is repeated from time to time in documentaries. But the researchers forget the simple fact that not even 5, but 6 compartments were flooded. Water entered the fourth boiler room from the bottom, not from the top. The vessel's designer, Edward Wilding, confirmed that in the event of the flooding of the fourth boiler house, the vessel would not be saved by any increase in the baffles.
The fourth trumpet of the Titanic was a fake. The fourth pipe really wasn't as functional as the others. It was built to maintain overall balance and design. It was not used to remove smoke or gases from boiler furnaces. Nevertheless, it should not be considered useless. With the help of such a pipe, ventilation of the engine room was provided. Steam engines and turbines worked there. Through this pipe, smoke escaped from the first-class smoking room, and the kitchen was ventilated. So some kind of smoke came out of it, but it was clearly less noticeable than from the other three pipes. And to see that this was really so, you can look at real photographs of the Olympic, where the fourth chimney clearly smokes. And there is no point in refuting the myths that secret cargo or pets were transported in it, due to the complete senselessness of such a statement.