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Indonesia

Indonesia



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Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia) is the sixteenth largest country in the world by area. Located in Southeast Asia. Among the island states of the world (Indonesia includes more than eighteen thousand islands), Indonesia ranks first in size.

Located on the islands of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia borders Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. According to this indicator, the country ranks 4th in the world and is second only to the People's Republic of China, India and the United States of America.

According to the state structure, Indonesia is a republic, the president leads the country and the government. Parliament is the legislature and the People's Consultative Congress is the highest organ of government.

Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia, however, over two hundred and fifty languages ​​and dialects are spoken in the country. Young people speak more English, many also speak Chinese.

The main religion in Indonesia is Islam - eighty-seven percent Muslim. Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism are also widespread in the country.

Banks are open on weekdays from eight to fifteen hours (on Friday from eight to half past eleven), Saturday and Sunday are days off. The working day of foreign banks, as a rule, is limited to a period of time from eight to fourteen hours.

Many shops are open from nine in the morning until nine in the evening, while some end their workday at eighteen.

Jakarta is the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. The city plays a decisive role in the life of the country. The Indonesian capital is located at the mouth of the Chi-livung River - on the northwestern coast of Java. In this place, in the distant sixteenth century, there was a thriving port. In the seventeenth century, the city was named Batavia, and with this name it existed until the twentieth century, when in the period from 1642 to 1945. (during the Japanese occupation), it received its modern name - Jakarta. In a short period of time, the former Batavia (its population barely reached two hundred thousand people) turned into a large Indonesian city with a population of more than a million people. Jakarta is becoming the economic, cultural and political center of Indonesia, which gives it the opportunity for further rapid development. There are a small number of skyscrapers in the center of Jakarta, but most of the city is built up with houses one or two stories high. An interesting fact is that a significant part of these houses have grown rather erratically over the past decades. Factories, all kinds of offices, shops are located in crowded residential areas. As for the outskirts of Jakarta, a peculiar village atmosphere reigns here - temporary houses have been built and vegetable gardens are laid out. Although the appearance of the Indonesian capital is changing at a rapid pace, modern shops and more and more high-rise buildings are emerging. Over time, a significant part of the former Batavia collapsed. On the other hand, the Old Town Square has survived, but it is pretty well preserved, on its northern side there is an ancient Si Yago cannon. Indonesians recognize this cannon as a symbol of fertility, so you shouldn't be surprised that young wives often sit on the cannon, and couples bring various gifts to it. Along the edges of the town square are three buildings dating back to the colonial era. They currently play the role of museums. On the southern side of the city square, a tourist can visit the Jakarta Historical Museum, which was formerly the City Hall (the building was built in 1710 and had the meaning of the City Hall until the sixties of the twentieth century). Today, its halls display works of art from Indonesian history, portraits of local governors general, household utensils, and seventeenth-century furniture. Dramatic moments of history are also associated with this building - in its underground rooms prisoners were kept, who were forced to wait for their fate, standing for a long time to the waist in sewage. Torture and public executions were carried out every day on the town hall square. These marked practically the entire period of Dutch rule. On the west side of the town square is the Wayang Museum. The exposition of this museum includes masks and dolls. Among them are dolls collected from different parts of Indonesia: dolls of the biblical shadow theater, dolls of the patriotic shadow theater, Thai shadow theater dolls, wooden round and flat dolls, etc. in the collection there is even a doll that depicts J.P. Kun - the founder of the Indonesian capital Cities. On the east side of the town square, you can now visit the Museum of Fine Arts. It is located in the Palace of Justice, built in 1879. A wide variety of terracotta products of the fourteenth century, Javanese jugs, examples of rare porcelain, sculptures and paintings by contemporary artists will appear before the visitor's eyes. In the background of the museum you can see two old Dutch houses dating back to the eighteenth century. In the immediate vicinity of the European part of Jakarta, there is an area populated by the Chinese. This is Glodok, endowed with narrow crowded streets. North of the Chinese region is the port of Sunda Kelapa, used since 1817. The length of its berth reaches one and a half kilometers.

Jakarta is a popular city among tourists. This is not entirely true. Indiscriminate traffic and unbearable heat are not attractive factors for tourist traffic. Despite this, the Indonesian capital has something to boast about. This is the architecture of the colonial period, excellent museums, as well as a large number of entertainment venues, restaurants and great shops. In Jakarta, there are quite a few places where an inquisitive tourist can go. Opposite the port of Sunda Kelap is the Uitkiyk watchtower, built in 1839. It was once part of a seventeenth century Dutch fort that guarded the local harbor. One of the interesting museums in the Indonesian capital is the Maritime Museum (Bahari Museum), which surprises visitors about traditional sailing ships and the famous spice trade. A wide variety of seafood and fish can be purchased at the popular Pasar Icahn Fish Market. It is located on the same street as the Bahari Museum. The National Monument, which rises directly in the central part of Jakarta (opened in 1961), deserves special attention. The height of this marble obelisk, crowned with a bronze torch, reaches one hundred and thirty-seven meters. It took thirty-three kilograms of gold to gilt the torch. The National Monument (Monas) is a monument to George Washington and at the same time symbolizes the Olympic flame. The interest of tourists can be aroused by the Wild Bull Square - Lapangen Banteng. From the south it is bounded by the gigantic hotel Borobudur, from the east by the buildings of the Ministry of Finance and the Supreme Court, and from the north by the National Cathedral. In the center of this square there is a monument in honor of the liberation and annexation of Irian Jaya to Indonesia. The monument is a sculpture of a muscular giant who broke the shackles.

"Indonesia in Miniature" is an amazing park in Jakarta. It is located ten kilometers south of the Indonesian capital and covers an area of ​​one hundred hectares. The park presents its visitors with twenty-seven main pavilions. Each of them represents a specific province in Indonesia. Each of the pavilions provides an opportunity to see buildings and products that are characteristic of one of the Indonesian provinces. In addition, the park can be proud of other attractions (there are at least thirty of them). This is the magnificent Museum of Indonesia, and the model of Borobudur, and the orchid garden, and the park of tropical birds.

Indonesia is famous for its excellent nature. Indeed, nature has created many masterpieces in this country. These, for example, include three lakes located close to each other. They are located on the island of Flores and are located in the crater of the large volcano Keli Mutu. One of them is black and red, the rest have different shades of green. Each of these lakes has its own romantic name. "Lake of enchanted people" - this is how the name of the lake Tivoe Ata is translated. Its waters are almost black (dark red in color). The matte emerald color is characteristic of the second lake, the name of which means "Lake of boys and girls". The clear green water is the "property" of the third lake. Isn't it very surprising that all these lakes are so different, despite their close location to each other? Presumably, the answer to this question lies in the chemical composition of the volcano's lava, which can differ significantly in different cases. There are many fire-breathing mountains in Indonesia, and the aforementioned volcano (which is one of them) is an integral part of the Ring of Fire.

Bali Island is the pearl of the Indonesian archipelago. This island literally attracts sunshine. Small in size, it is a storehouse of natural masterpieces. An earthly paradise - the island of Bali has earned such fame for itself (largely thanks to the work and respect for nature on the part of the Balinese). The influx of tourists from all over the world to Bali began in the sixties of the twentieth century. In order to preserve the nature of Bali and not stop the tourist flow to these parts, the government decided to concentrate resorts on its southern side, as well as to prohibit the construction of hotels with a height exceeding four floors.

Social life in Bali is a complex system of social connections. Since the souls of children are believed to be closest to heaven, children have special privileges. Babies in Bali are not allowed to touch the unclean ground, so they are worn on their hands almost always. Adults talk to children in an affectionate voice and soothe with gentle strokes. The newborn always receives a present from the priest on the first birthday, which determines the beginning of a number of rituals and ceremonies. Each village on the island has small communities. The members of each of them actively help each other in various life circumstances. Communal property is under the control of each of these small communities (they are also called banjars). Typically, a banjara includes a communal temple, a meeting tent, a tower with a signal drum, and a kitchen where festive meals are prepared.

South Bali is a place of concentration of resorts. This part of the island really dominates management, trade and, of course, tourism. Here is the city of Denpasar (which is the main in the province of Bali), an international airport and all three of the most popular seaside resorts of the island among tourists. The tourism boom has resulted in unprecedented demographic and economic growth in the area.

Komodo is the island of mysterious animals. It is very small in size. Komodo is located east of Java. This small island is especially famous among geographers and zoogeographers from all over the world. The fact is that rare species of animals live on Komodo. Many of them are even mysterious. For example, the descendants of prehistoric predatory lizards extinct on the planet. These are lizards. They were discovered on this island in 1912 by a pilot. Having made an unplanned landing, he discovered previously unseen animals, about which he told the shocked world. The Komodo dragon has impressive dimensions, however, in spite of this fact, it is very mobile and fast. He is a carnivore, and his diet includes feral horses, deer, wild boars, and sometimes buffaloes; although the Komodo dragon does not refuse to fall. As for the relationship between a dragon and a person, they cannot be called unambiguous. When a person does not pose a danger to the dragon, the animal, as a rule, moves away from him to the side, however, if a person decides to catch or has already caught the dragon, then he risks getting serious injuries. The monitor lizard has strong jaws and a powerful tail, which can easily knock a person down. Cases of a Komodo dragon attacking a person are rare. The Komodo dragon can even be tamed, in this case the animal ceases to be dangerous, is ready to follow the person everywhere, take food from his hands and respond to the nickname given to him.

Komodo is a densely populated island. Quite the opposite. The small fishing village of the same name is the only settlement of its kind on the island. Its population is engaged in goat breeding and fishing (there are a huge number of fish in the crystal clear sea water). Currently, the island has the status of a national park. Lizards are not the only representatives of the animal world that are of interest to zoologists. The island is inhabited by representatives of rare species of wild boars, deer and birds. The Moluccas are "spice islands". They are very famous. The Maluku Islands are renowned throughout the world as a source of cinnamon, pepper, nutmeg, cloves and other rare overseas goods. By the way, the Arabic word "maluku" gave the name to these islands. This word means "land of kings".

Mountains are the main part of the relief of Indonesia. They occupy more than half of its territory. The island of New Guinea is the highest point in Indonesia. This is Mount Jaya, which is 5029 meters high. Indonesia has approximately four hundred volcanoes, of which forty are active. The height of the highest of the latter is equal to three thousand eight hundred meters. It is located in Sumatra. tropical forests cover about one third of Indonesia. About a third of the entire territory of the country is covered with tropical rainforests.

Russians need a visa to enter Indonesia. If the planned visit to this country is less than thirty days, then a visa is not required. For more than thirty days, a visa can be obtained upon arrival at border checkpoints, seaports and international airports. To obtain a visa-stamp upon entering the country, you must provide a foreign passport, return tickets, one completed application form with one photo. If, for whatever reason, the tourist does not have return tickets, then the amount of cash (or money on a credit card) should not be less than a thousand dollars. The visa fee is twenty-five dollars, the receipt of payment is included in the general package of documents. A visa is issued free of charge for children under nine years old (they must be entered in the parents' passport), a visa is issued for a fee for all children over nine years old.

Tipping is customary in Indonesia. In general, this is not the case. However, in some cases, you still have to tip. They make up from five to ten percent of the cost of the service, for example, a guide in local currency is given from four to five thousand rupees (this is about seventy cents).

Indonesia is a Muslim country. This is mostly true. This circumstance obliges visitors to reckon with the traditions of Indonesia and the rules of conduct.During religious ceremonies, it is forbidden to talk loudly, it is forbidden to sunbathe without the top of a swimsuit, to wear very short skirts and shorts, it is forbidden to touch a person's head or point a finger at a passer-by. All manifestations of tenderness in public places also cause condemnation from others.

Indonesia is a country with a distinctive culture. Indeed, features such as diversity and identity are characteristic of Indonesian culture. Numerous peoples of Indonesia cherish the traditions and customs rooted in distant antiquity, which have been developing and enriching over the centuries. They were influenced, among other things, by the bearers of other cultures: the British, Dutch, Portuguese, Chinese, Persians, Arabs, Indians and other peoples. Similar developmental conditions have led to the presence of many common features of the cultures of individual peoples of Indonesia, but this country still has a significant cultural diversity.

Batik is a widespread art in Indonesia. It consists in the ability to paint the fabric in the most beautiful way after waxing it. Indeed, this skill is spread throughout the country. Java and Yoguakarta are recognized centers of this activity. In addition, many other folk crafts are popular in Indonesia. Firstly, the songket - silvery and golden threads are woven into silk fabric. Secondly, the ikat. This is weaving with dyed threads. Third, Chris. Even precious stones are often used as decoration for drawings of this kind of folk craft.

Indonesian cuisine is influenced by Chinese influences. For many dishes, this is really true. However, there are a lot of dishes of national origin, for example, padang. Wherever a tourist is in Indonesia, he will be amazed at the abundance of stalls selling snacks. These can be fruits, cookies, sweet nuts, potatoes. Many Indonesian dishes are based on rice. It is used to prepare not only salads and side dishes for spicy and hot dishes, but also to prepare soups directly. The most popular dish among the population is nasi goreng, which is essentially fried rice. A fairly large part of the diet of Indonesians is seafood. Indonesia is a fruit-rich country. Their variety is amazing. Among the tropical fruits growing here are nephelium, papaya, mango, jackfruit, guava, etc.

Indonesians are a slow people. The calm rhythm of life made him such. Many Indonesians start their working day early - at seven in the morning. But at three o'clock in the afternoon, a significant part of the local residents are already finishing their work. The rest of the day is spent in peace and quiet. Indonesians are in awe of religion and all the rituals associated with it. A tourist should show respect for the religious traditions of Indonesia, but it is not necessary to observe fasting at all, since the locals are very tolerant of foreigners. Indonesians are also distinguished by their hospitality. Due to this character trait, the locals always treat tourists favorably. They will gladly introduce visitors to their home and life.

Indonesians never mind taking pictures. Many of them really love it. This is especially true when tourists intend to photograph their children. However, before taking a commemorative photo, you should ask for permission. The elementary question "Foto?" will put everything in its place. Often, a negative reaction to an offer to take a picture is characteristic of older people who may be embarrassed to be photographed. Then you need to say "Thank you" and leave. It is considered very impolite to photograph people during prayer. The laws of the sea have a great impact on the life of Indonesians. This is reflected in the development of water transport. Traditional boats and motorboats run between the islands; a high-speed ferry from Indonesia can get to Malaysia in a short period of time. By the way, from the water you can see all of Indonesia, while staying in the most beautiful and attractive corners of it. The advantages of such an acquaintance with the country include the absence of significant travel costs. Indonesia has a huge number of yacht clubs. It seems that the warm sea of ​​Indonesia was created for them. On a yacht, you can sail into the country even as a passenger, and not its owner.

Public transport is the most convenient way to travel in Indonesia. It is relatively cheap to get from one point to another by buses, most of which are equipped with air conditioning. On the island of Bali in Denpasar there is a bus station, which is the starting point to all parts of the island for minibuses. Locals call these minibuses "bemo" - the cost of renting it for one day is approximately thirty dollars. By renting a bike, a tourist gets the opportunity to travel around the country and marvel at its beauty on his own. The bike is very popular in Indonesia, so finding a good one shouldn't be difficult. Taxis are recognized as a rather comfortable way of transportation. Many taxi drivers speak English. It is true that in small Indonesian cities it is unlikely to find a taxi at all, and even more so a taxi with an English-speaking driver. It is preferable to pay for your taxi fare in local currency. Otherwise, the passenger will overpay somewhat. Taxis are not uncommon in major cities, as are huge traffic jams (especially in Jakarta, which has a population of approximately twelve million). There are railways on the islands of Sumatra and Java, so you can get around by train.

Bangli is a laid-back Indonesian market town. Its climate is characterized by freshness and coolness due to the location of this town high in the hills. The main attraction of Bangli is the Pura Keneh Temple. Rising up a steep slope, the imposing temple is highly revered by the Indonesians. The outer courtyard of the temple is protected by a legendary stone. At the moment of determining the place where the temple will be laid, this stone was engulfed in a bright flame. In close proximity to the village of Taman Bali is the Dusun Ku waterfall, its waters fall into the river from a height of twenty-five meters.


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