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Almost every one of us has some knowledge of first aid, no matter where it came from. However, for the most part, this set is just a mess of rumors and stereotypes, while the application of such scattered knowledge in practice is not only meaningless, but also simply dangerous.
For example, everyone knows that a splint should be applied to a fracture. In practice, the victim for some reason is not happy about the fact that they are trying to straighten his broken limb in order to tie it to a stick.
In fact, the fracture must be fixed in a position comfortable for the victim, even if the limb is bent at the same time. Someone will laugh at the ten myths listed below, as at a thing known for a long time, while someone will think or remember.
It is better to suffer yourself, but to help out a friend. This stereotype was created by the proverb "Die yourself, and help your comrade", numerous films, books and simply the ideology and agitation of the Soviet era. Then self-sacrifice and heroism were simply praised. No one denies that these qualities are important and valuable, but in real life, following these rules can be fraught with the loss of life not only to the person being saved, but also to the hero himself. For example, a car crashed into a power line. The driver may find himself unconscious inside the car, and the current is not afraid of him, but the hero rushing to help may well suffer from the current without seeing the wires. Followed by more and more ... As a result, the live driver is surrounded by several heroes who did not manage to call an ambulance and rescuers. And all because the heroes did not know the simple rules - first assess the danger to themselves, and only then - for the victim. After all, it is obvious that if a trouble happens to the rescuer, then it will not be possible to help further. If possible, you should abandon extreme heroism, no matter how cynical it sounds, one corpse is always better than two.
The victim must be reached by any means. And again let's turn to the topic of roads and accidents. It turns out that a very common scenario is when the victims, even before the ambulance arrives, are taken out of the car by caring assistants and laid on the ground. Only now they pull a person out of the crumpled car by the arms and legs, as a result, not harmless ones are added to the injuries received, like a deformity of the spine. If a person had expected calmly help in the car, this could have been avoided. As a result, a person can spend much more time in the hospital thanks to inaccurate care. Witnesses of an accident must first of all call for help and disconnect the battery of the emergency vehicle so that gasoline does not flash from a spark. Next, you should fence off the accident site, stop the bleeding, and just talk to the victim, waiting for help arriving. Such a psychological technique will make the person realize that they are being cared for. But it is possible to drag a person by the arms and legs only when the consequences of help are still preferable to its absence. For example, in the event of a car fire.
Sometimes you should pin your tongue to the collar. There is a tale according to which a person who has lost consciousness must use a pin to pin his tongue to the collar, in order not to sink the tongue into the airways. And there have been such cases. In an unconscious state, a person's language actually sinks, you need to know this and you should fight this. However, not by the same barbaric method! By the way, getting your tongue out of your mouth is not so easy. After all, it is soft and slippery and strives to slip out, not wanting to remain in an extended state. And this method is unhygienic. To free the airways from the sunken tongue, there is a simple method - turn the person to one side. This is exactly what is recommended to do with people (usually drunk) sleeping on the street. Lay it on its side and that's it. But if a sleeping drunkard lies on his back, then he is threatened by two dangers at once: choking on vomiting or suffocating from falling tongue. If for some reason a person cannot be put on one side (for example, if there is a suspicion of a spinal injury), then it will be enough just to throw his head back.
Applying a tourniquet to the neck. By the way, it is quite possible to do this, only the tourniquet is applied through the arm. The tourniquet is generally perceived by our people as a universal and first remedy for severe bleeding. True, few people remember that a tourniquet can be applied for two hours in summer, and for one in winter. Moreover, not the most dangerous shallow cut is often burned, and as a result, a bloodless limb can be lost. It is important to remember that a tourniquet is used only to stop arterial bleeding, such blood is much lighter than venous blood. Also, due to the pressure, the blood fountain and its height will be apparent. In such a situation, you should not waste time looking for a tourniquet or rope, you need to clamp the wound with anything, even your finger, in the places where the artery is closest to the surface (armpits, groin). The bleeding should be stopped first, and then the tourniquet should be placed. And of course, immediately send the victim to the hospital. A note must be attached to the tourniquet indicating the time of its installation. In extreme cases, it is necessary to write this information even on the patient's body, even on the forehead. Innocent body art will be forgiven if life is saved. Venous bleeding is better to stop with a tight pressure bandage, even if the blood pressure is abundant. Is the bandage soaked in blood? It doesn't matter - put another layer on top. By the way, the doctor will be able to assess the severity of blood loss by the thickness of the bandage.
Burns should be lubricated with oil. First of all, you need to understand that a person consists of 80% water, which, in addition to other properties, also has heat capacity. What then is the burn? Heat enters the skin, leaving its surface deeper into the body, into the tissues. Logic dictates that you can extract heat by cooling the burn site, stopping overheating. Therefore, pouring cold water on the burn and further waiting is justified. Only now we usually wait a little, usually it happens only about a minute - until the pain disappears or softens. However, this time is not enough for all the heat to come out, something came out, and something lurked. Next, we smear the burn area with oil, ointment, cream or kefir. As a result, over the place where the excess heat is located deeper in the tissues, an airtight cushion of substances is created that prevent them from escaping to freedom. As a result, the burn is further aggravated. But if a person had the patience to stand under water for 10-15 minutes, the situation would radically change. Then panthenol or other means will be able to work effectively with the skin, from under which all the heat has already been removed.
Ears should be rubbed in case of frostbite. Frostbite is not a curiosity for Russia with its frost. In this case, the nose and ears quickly turn white and then lose sensitivity. However, if you rub them with snow or hands, they quickly turn red, then pain comes. This is due to the fact that the body is a system of blood vessels and nerve endings. In the cold, the first ones freeze, blood ceases to circulate through them, the endings become tanned, the whole system becomes fragile. Starting vigorous rubbing, we thereby destroy and break the entire system, causing serious damage to the body. After all, even if a bottle of beer is suddenly transferred from cold to warm, it can burst. What can we say about delicate vessels. Therefore, you should not fight frostbite by rubbing. Slow warming will be much more effective, preferably with lukewarm or even cool water. In this case, the consequences of frostbite will not be so dire, and the pain with the return of sensitivity is not so strong.
If you chill, then you need to warm it up. At high temperatures, it often happens that a person shivers, despite the high temperature. In this state, the body trembles, the patient just wants to crawl under a warm blanket and keep warm. Only few people know that in such a situation it is not only harmful to keep warm, but also extremely dangerous. The thing is that chills at temperatures above 38 degrees indicate that the body is overheating, and therefore the temperature rises. Therefore, a person must be cooled, but we wrap him up warmly, covering him with heating pads and blankets. As a result, the body heats up even more, as if being in a thermos. Perhaps even an increase in temperature up to 41 degrees, with irreversible consequences in the end. So at high temperatures and chills, you should not wrap yourself up, but you should cool as correctly as possible. It can be a cool bath, wet rubdowns, or a light blanket instead of warm blankets - you need to give the body the opportunity to get rid of excess heat. With the use of such measures, the high temperature will both be tolerated easier and will pass faster.
Gargling with potassium permanganate to cleanse the stomach. It turns out that manganese crystals dissolve in water only at a temperature of 70 degrees. Therefore, diluting such a solution in warm water is not only pointless, but also dangerous, since undissolved crystal can cause a lot of trouble in the stomach mucosa. To clear the stomach, it is enough to drink 3 to 5 glasses of plain warm water, and then induce vomiting.
If a person coughs, then you need to pat him on the back. Also, if a person chokes, most likely there will be a well-wisher who will knock on the back so that the cough goes away as soon as possible. It would seem that from a scientific point of view, such blows irritate the place where the foreign body is located. As a result, the choked one begins to cough even more, therefore, the piece that got into the wrong throat flies out on its own. Indeed, in 99% of cases, this is exactly what will happen, only there is one chance that the stuck piece will fall even deeper - into the respiratory tract, with all the ensuing consequences. In such a situation, it is still better not to knock on the back, even if the person asks for it. You should reassure the person, ask him to take a few slow breaths and sharp exhalations. When exhaling, it is better to lean forward slightly so that the air outlet pipe is as horizontal as possible. After three or four such breaths, coughing will intensify, the stuck piece will fly out and it will happen safely.
An epileptic should unclench his teeth. This statement is one of the most unshakable among Russians, it is also recommended to insert something between the teeth. Many people try to do this, and epileptics, having come to their senses, are surprised to find that their mouths are clogged with plastic from a gnawed fountain pen or fragments of their own teeth. Therefore, you should not shove anything in the mouth of a person. It is a mistake to think that a person in a seizure will be able to bite off their tongue. Indeed, during an attack, all muscles, including the tongue, are in good shape. It is tense, therefore, it cannot fall out of the mouth and does not fall between the teeth. The most dangerous thing that threatens the tongue is the bite of its tip. At the same time, a small amount of blood, mixed with the foamed saliva, creates the appearance of unprecedented destruction, giving rise to similar myths. Therefore, do not try to place knives or forks between your teeth. In this situation, it would be more correct to kneel near the epileptic, trying to hold his head, protecting it from impacts on the ground. This is much more dangerous than a hypothetically bitten tongue. But when the active phase and convulsions pass, then you should turn the person to one side, he will fall asleep. Although this stage will not last long, in it the muscles will relax, so the person runs the risk of suffocation from the sinking of the tongue.