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Baseball (English baseball, from base - base, base and ball - ball) is a popular sports game with a ball and a bat in many countries, played on a ground of 175x125 m, in which 2 teams, consisting of 9 (North American baseball) or 11 (Welsh baseball) players.
Popular in more than 120 countries around the world, this game has attracted hundreds of thousands of people over the years, if not to participate, then at least to observe the actions of dexterous, strong players. In addition, in some countries (Czech Republic, Japan, USA) there is a simplified version of baseball - softball, in which anyone can try their hand.
The baseball world championships have been held since 1938, in 1992 this sport was included in the program of the Olympic Games. However, the growing popularity of baseball did not prevent the representatives of the IOC member states at the 117th session in Singapore from deciding to exclude this game from the list of Olympic sports.
According to this decision, made and documented on July 8, 2005, baseball is presented for the last time at the Olympic Games in Beijing. The reason for this state of affairs was the disagreement between the IOC and the Baseball League in the United States, as well as the insufficient, according to the commission, the spread of this game in the IOC member countries.
World fame, widespread prevalence, professionalism of hundreds of players and deep respect and reverence of thousands of fans did not prevent this sport from acquiring many myths, the most famous of which we will try to debunk.
The birthplace of baseball is America. Indeed, many Americans believe that baseball was invented in their country. Opinions differ only as to who exactly became the founder of this game - General Abner Doubleday from Cooperstown (New York) or Alexander Cartwright from New York. But it should be borne in mind that back in 1744 in London was published "A small entertaining pocket book", which, among other information, contained an article "Baseball", supplied with illustrations. From this it follows that the birthplace of baseball is in fact England (where the aforementioned game existed in the Tudor period and was called the Rounders). True, the inhabitants of foggy Albion did not harbor a particular fondness for this sport, preferring a cricket like it. But the Americans just loved baseball.
Baseball-like games only existed in England. This is not true. Extremely similar to baseball, for example, Russian rounders, known since the XIV century. Similar games exist in other countries: pelota (Cuba), oima (Romania), pesapallo (Finland), and shlagbal (Germany).
The first baseball match took place in 1846. As already mentioned, baseball was played back in the middle of the 18th century in England, and in different regions of America at the beginning of the 19th century there were several games similar to baseball (townball, roundball, Massachusetts game). The problem was that there were many differences between the aforementioned games (different number of players and their location on the field, size of the court, etc.). In order for teams from different parts of the country to compete with each other, it was necessary to create uniform rules of the game, which Alexander Cartwright did in 1845. And on June 19, 1846 (this day is considered the official date of birth of baseball), the first match "by the rules" took place in Hoboken (New Jersey).
Baseball is developed exclusively in America; in fact, the game is extremely popular in more than eighty countries around the world, notably Wales, Australia and the Caribbean. And the leaders of amateur baseball, having won 18 world championships (the most on the planet) and two Olympics, are the people of Cuba.
Baseball game times are fixed. No, there is no clear time frame. According to the rules, the duel lasts nine game periods (innings), but if both teams have the same number of points, additional innings are assigned. A draw in baseball is simply impossible - one side must win. Therefore, the duration of matches can vary over a very wide range. The shortest match in baseball history took place in September 1919 between the New York Giants and the Philadelphia Phillies - less than an hour. And the longest (duration - seven hours!) Was the competition between the San Francisco Giants and the New York Mets in May 1964.
A bat filled with cork is lighter and more resilient, and besides, it is able to hit the ball further than a regular one. In fact, a cork bat absorbs impact, so the speed of the ball hit by it is halved, while a regular bat is able to give the ball the same acceleration with which he moved before contacting her. Accordingly, the flight range of a ball hit by a cork bat is less than that hit by a regular bat that meets the rules.
To avoid getting a home run, store your baseball ball in a damp place. Indeed, a well-dried ball can fly much further than a damp ball. Therefore, keeping the ball in wet conditions and weather conditions (after all, sometimes the ball can become damp during a game) reduce the possibility of long-range shots.
A strongly curled ball flies up vertically. What is called "flying the ball up" is simply an optical illusion, although it should be borne in mind that a correctly thrown and well-spun ball loses much less speed than a wrong ball.
Only inept players fall in front of the base and overcome the last meters, sliding on their stomachs. This is not entirely true - this technique is often used even by very experienced baseball players, especially when an overclocked player is forced to slow down sharply in order not to slip through the base. In addition, athletes who worked well for the aforementioned technique began to show better results than they did before using exclusively jogging.
A very strong blow from the ball can fly off the tire. This is possible only when the seams on the tire are made with extremely thin, low-quality threads. With a regular, high-quality ball, the tire can fly off if the speed of its movement is more than 700 km / h. This will require a special mechanism - after all, a person is able to give the ball an acceleration of about 120-150 km / h, that is, almost four times less.
Women don't play baseball. It is completely wrong opinion - both men and women can be players.
An equal number of players from both teams are on the field at the same time. No, initially 9 players of one team (playing in defense) and a maximum of 4 players of the other team (playing in the attacker) enter the field. When three attacking players are eliminated from the game, the teams change roles (the attackers defend, and the defenders switch to the attack), and the number of players on the field changes accordingly.